Living in Grace and Faith – Romans 4:13-25 – Week 12

Living in Grace and Faith

Romans 4:13-25

Week 12

Rob Covell

Introduction – In this Session, we will complete Romans chapter 4 and continue with Paul building on the beauty of redemption and the romance of the gospel; that the justification before God for the forgiveness of sins, is by faith and not works.
Romans is truly a glorious, freeing book that lifts the weight of failure, the weight of sins, and the burden of guilt from the human heart.

From Romans 4 to Romans 8, we experience an ascending string of beautiful theological thoughts that are intended for us to be completely convinced and freed from anything in our lives that would hinder us from experiencing the love and affections of God in our lives.

In Romans 4:13-25 we see the following 6 movements in the text.

1 – Abraham, the heir of the world through His faith.

2 – Faith is the agency of acceptance in the Father and agency by which one receives the promises of God.

3 – Faith is the great equalizer of humanity.

4 – Salvation is rooted in the goodness of God and not human works for the affections of God.

5 – Faith is progression of trust in God that receives the promises of God.

6 – Faith in the atoning sacrifice of Jesus Christ is the only way to the Father.

Romans 4:13-15

a) Paul describes Abraham as the heir of the world. Paul is referencing God’s promise to Abraham in Genesis 12 and Genesis 15. Genesis 12:2-3 – “I will make you into a great nation, and I will bless you; I will make your name great, and you will be a blessing. I will bless those who bless you, and whoever curses you I will curse; and all peoples on earth will be blessed through you.” Today the global Church of Jesus Christ is the fulfillment of this prophetic promise that the LORD made to Abraham.

b) The vehicle for receiving the promises of God are not through the Law, but by the principle of faith, evidenced by trusting God through course of our lives, like Abraham. We should note that before Moses received the Law, the LORD already made 3 grace-based Covenants with humanity. The Adamic Covenant, the Noahic Covenant and Abraham’s Covenant. These covenants between God and man were motivated by God’s love and goodness toward humanity and His promise of Messiah who would redeem us the consequences of the Fall.

c) One cannot depend on the Law to bring righteousness because no one is able to keep the Law. Only One kept the Law, the Lord Jesus Christ, who through the perfection of His Law-Keeping, became the perfect Passover Lamb that was sacrificed for the sins of the world.

d) Where there is no Law, there is no transgression – How are we to understand
this statement? 1 – One may sin and still not transgress a command of the Law of Moses. 2 – The example of this would be Adam and Eve, who sinned and yet did not transgress the Law because sin’s root is breaking trust with God. Therefore, God relates to humanity through relationship and not Law. When people center their relationship with the LORD around Law-Keeping instead of loving Him, we contradict God’s plan of redemption.

Romans 4:16

a) It is abundantly clear in Scripture that our standing before God has nothing to do with who we are, but with who God is. Faith is the great equalizer of humanity. All who trust God and approach Him by faith in Messiah are sons and daughters of Abraham and children of God.

b) The agency of salvation is grace. Faith – Greek – charis – grace, that which affords joy, pleasure, delight, sweetness, charm, loveliness: grace of speech, good will, loving-kindness, favor, of the merciful kindness by which God, exerting his holy influence upon souls, turns them to Christ, keeps, strengthens, increases them in Christian faith, knowledge, affection, and kindles them to the exercise of the Christian virtues, the spiritual condition of one governed by the power of divine grace, a gift.

c) Salvation is rooted in the goodness of God. We cannot work for the affections of God because the affections of God toward people originate in Him. 1 John 4:19 – We love because he first loved us.

Romans 4:17

a) To give life, one must possess life. God is the God of life, the hope of resurrection, new beginnings and new creation life. b) God changes our reality and the impossible is possible with Him. He transcends our reality and can move in the lives of people in any way He desires. Our faith in Him, gives us the opportunity for the impossibilities of life to become possible in Him. Where ever we lack or need change, God is the agency of that change.

Romans 4:18-21

a) Notice that faith is simply believing God, or the promises of God to be true. Faith – Greek – pistis – conviction of the truth of anything, belief; in the NT of a conviction or belief respecting man’s relationship to God and divine things, generally with the included idea of trust and holy fervor born of faith and joined with it.

b) Faith that receives the promise of God works is modeled in the following ways: 1 – recognizing the impossibility, or the impossible situation. Denial is not faith. Faith sees the situation and trusts God in the midst. 2 – Faith is strengthened by giving glory (Greek – Doxa) to God. 3 – The promises are received by being persuaded, or the mind being steadfast in God’s power, or the inherent power of His Person.

Romans 4:22-25

a) Credited – Greek – logizomai – to reckon, count, compute, calculate, count over, a
thing is reckoned as or to be something, i.e. as availing for or equivalent to something, as having the like force and weight, to take into account, to make an account of – it is an ancient banking term that Paul uses as a metaphor for the wealth of mercy, love and grace God shows in forgiving our sins.

b) Jesus Christ is the only way to access the promise of salvation, righteousness and justification. There is no other approach to God, but through trusting Christ. That is the great boast of Christianity compared to the religions of the world. All other religious systems approach God through works, with no assurance of acceptance. Only Christianity promises relationship with God apart from works, by faith is Jesus Messianic identity and Messianic works of the cross, with the evidence being the resurrection. Jesus death on the cross paid the ransom for sin and satisfied the justice, holiness and righteousness of God, and the resurrection proved the Father accepted that sacrifice.

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Living in Grace and Faith – Romans 4:1-12 – Week 11

Living in Grace and Faith

Romans 4:1-12

Week 11

Rob Covell

Introduction – In this Session, we will begin Romans chapter 4 and see Paul building on the theological thought of justification before God is by faith and not works. Romans is truly a glorious, freeing book that lifts the weight of failure, the weight of sins, and the burden of guilt from the human heart. From Romans 4 to Romans 8, we experience an ascending string of beautiful theological thoughts that are intended for us to be completely convinced and freed from anything in our lives that would hinder us from experiencing the love and affections of God in our lives.

In Romans 4:1-12 we see the following movements in the text.

1 – Abraham is the example of faith that pleases God.

2 – God accepts all people, Jew or Gentile by their faith in the sacrifice of Jesus Christ on the cross.

3 – Circumcision, like Baptism is a sign of the inward change of the heart that was born in faith.

Romans 4:1

a) Paul begins to build on the theological construct that all people are justified before God, not by religious works, but by faith in the sacrifice of Jesus Christ. When we consider the sacrifice of Jesus Christ on the cross for the sins of humanity, we are considering the following theological thoughts: Jesus fulfilled every type, shadow and prophesy in the Old Covenant Scriptures, Jesus was a perfect Adam/or representation of Man, and Jesus was sinless. These things make Him our Passover Lamb, and His resurrection proves that the Father accepted the sacrifice and handed Him the dominion that was lost in Eden.

b) Paul uses Abraham as the example because He was the father of the Hebrews and the most important figure in Judaism alongside Moses. In the context of the culture, many rabbis of the First Century taught that Abraham kept the Law by intuition or anticipation of the Law before God gave it to Moses. Therefore, he was justified by his works of the Law. Here are 2 quotes from ancient rabbis of the time; “We find that Abraham our father had performed the whole Law before it was given” and “Abraham was perfect in all his deeds with the Lord.”

c) Paul is making the point from the revelation given in Scripture that Abraham was indeed justified by faith and not works that anticipated the Law. d) Justified – Greek – dikaioō – to render righteous or such he ought to be, to declare, pronounce, one to be just, righteous, or such as he ought to be, to show, exhibit, evince, one to be righteous, such as he is and wishes himself to be considered. Notice that this is what God extends to people by faith and perceives us to be.

Romans 4:2-3

a) Notice that the Scripture says that Abraham believed God, and God credited righteousness to Him. It does not say God made Abraham righteous, but counted him righteous. We become wholly righteous at our death, or at the return of Jesus Christ if we are still living.

b) Counted/Credited – Greek – logizomai – to reckon, count, compute, calculate, count over, a thing is reckoned as or to be something, i.e. as availing for or equivalent to something, as having the like force and weight, to take into account, to make an account of – it is an ancient banking term that Paul uses as a metaphor for the wealth of mercy, love and grace God shows in forgiving our sins.

c) Paul quotes Genesis 15:6.

Romans 4:4-5

a) Paul makes the point that no one is truly ever justified by works. Even the Law witnesses this in Exodus and Leviticus, where the provision of the sin offering is prescribed for the guilty who sinned against God and people.

b) One of the major assignments of the spirit of religion is to keep God fearing people trapped in a system of works that strive for the affections of God.

c) When we trust Christ for our forgiveness, justification and righteousness, we are abiding in Jesus and resting in His finished work of the cross. We cease from striving for the affections of God and cease from striving for His love. See Romans 8:35

Romans 4:6-8

a) Paul uses David as the example of the one who has experienced the freedom of knowing that the sins of the past do not define our future or weigh on our souls.

b) In Psalm 32:1-2, David describes spiritual freedom. The remarkable thing about David was his revelation of God’s grace.

Romans 4:9-10

a) Paul makes the point from Abraham’s example that it does not matter what condition the person is in, whether Jew, or Gentile, it is believing God that justifies the persom before Him.

b) Galatians 3:26-29 – So in Christ Jesus you are all children of God through faith, for all of you who were baptized into Christ have clothed yourselves with Christ. There is neither Jew nor Gentile, neither slave nor free, nor is there male and female, for you are all one in Christ Jesus. If you belong to Christ, then you are Abraham’s seed, and heirs according to the promise.

Romans 4:11-12

a) Circumcision was the seal, or the sign of the Covenant that God made with Abraham because he believed.

b) Baptism is the sign of our faith in the New Covenant era. It is the outward sign of what has already taken place in our hearts. Considering the kindness of God, how should we respond to that kind of love, care and provision as He has freed us from the judgment for our sins?

Living in Faith and Grace – Romans 3:21-31 – Week 10

Living in Grace and Faith

Romans 3:21-31

Week 10

Rob Covell

Introduction – In this Session, we will complete Romans Chapter 3 and begin to touch the highest thoughts about Jesus Christ in any of the New Covenant Scriptures. Romans 3:21-31 are truly exciting because they refresh our souls through the knowledge of being forgiven of our sins in Jesus by faith and justified before the Father by His grace.

We see the goodness of God on full display in these 10 verses. We could say that these are freedom declaration verses that release the soul from the burden of shame and the religious spirit that keeps us bound in works and striving for the favor and love of God to present in our lives.

In Romans 3:21-31, there are 3 movements in the text.

1 – The Law and the Prophets prophesy the Messiah and the grace that He gives to humanity.

2 – Jesus is the Atonement for sin and justifies us before the Father.

3 – The Gospel of Jesus Christ upholds the Law because the Law prophesied the Gospel.

Romans 8:21

a) The Law and the Prophets all pointed to the Messiah, Jesus Christ. The Covenants that the LORD made with humanity and Israel were all types that prophesied Messiah and were fulfilled in Messiah. See Jeremiah 31:13.

b) Jesus fulfilled the Law, see Matthew 5:17-20.

Romans 8:22-24

a) In these few verses Paul gives us the good news of the gospel of Jesus Christ. It does not matter who we are, or what sins we committed, it is Christ who met the righteous requirements of the Law and then extends them to us by faith. This is catastrophic to the spirit of religion.

b) Greek – righteousness – dikaiosynē – in a broad sense: state of him who is as he ought to be, righteousness, the condition acceptable to God, integrity, virtue, purity of life, rightness, correctness of thinking feeling, and acting.

c) It is by grace – Greek – charis – grace, that which affords joy, pleasure, delight, sweetness, charm, loveliness: grace of speech, good will, loving-kindness, favor, of the merciful kindness by which God, exerting his holy influence upon souls, turns them to Christ, keeps, strengthens, increases them in Christian faith, knowledge, affection, and kindles them to the exercise of the Christian virtues, the spiritual condition of one governed by the power of divine grace, benefit, bounty.

d) Notice that Jesus is the agency by which grace flows into the lives of people.

Romans 8:25-26

a) Jesus is the sacrifice by which the sins of humanity is atoned for. The word in the Greek (hilastērion) for atonement, refers to the mercy seat on to of the Ark of the Covenant. See Leviticus 16:15-16.

b) We receive the benefit of atonement by faith. God demonstrated His righteousness because He cannot violate His nature and character regarding the righteous judgment of sin. We see both Penal Substitution and Restorative Justice in the atonement of Jesus Christ.

c) The sins of the Old Covenant saints who sacrificed in the hope of Messiah were shown mercy from the LORD because the LORD in His omniscience was looking forward to the coming sacrifice of Messiah on the cross. The Old Covenant faithful looked forward, the New Covenant faithful look back to the cross. Therefore, Jesus is the pivot point by which the destinies of all people hinge.

Romans 3:27-28

a) There is no room for religious pride or self-righteous religious expressions because we are all dependent on Jesus for our justification and forgiveness of sins.

b) The religious spirit looks for works as a means of promoting hierarchies of spirituality that makes us more acceptable to God, instead of promoting dependence, humility and obedience that flow from relationship with God as a way of growing and pleasing Him.

Romans 3:29-31

a) The Scripture says our justification is by faith alone and not a combination of faith and works. Works flow from relationship and revelation by the Spirit. Christian works originate in the dialogue of prayer between us and God and what we see in the Scriptures that keep us in the Way.

b) Faith is the great equalizer of all people. It does not matter who we are, our faith is what maintains our acceptance in the Father.

c) Faith never voids the Law. The Law of Moses looked forward to the Law of faith that would come by the Messiah. Romans Chapter 4 explains this thought in detail. The gospel upholds the Law because the Law predicted the Gospel.

Living in Grace and Faith – Romans 3:9-20 – Week 9

Living in Grace and Faith

Romans 3:9-20

Week 9

Rob Covell

Introduction – In this Session, we will continue in Romans chapter 3, and explore verses 9-20. In these verses Paul brings the hopelessness of the human condition that stands before God wanting and bankrupt to a crescendo so that all people would realize God’s immense love for humanity in sacrificing His Son, Jesus Christ on the cross for the sins of humanity, so that we would be reconciled to Him, not by religious works, but by His grace.

In Romans 3:9-20, there are 4 movements in the text.

1 – Everyone is under the dominion of sin.

2 – Paul strings together a mix tape of Old Covenant Scriptures that accurately diagnose our need of God’s grace, forgiveness and mercy.

3 – All humanity is accountable to the Law

4 – The Law releases a revelation of our sin or makes us conscience/self aware of our sin.

Romans 8:9

a) When Paul makes the statement, “Do we have any advantage”; he is speaking for Jews, and Paul himself was a Jewish Pharisee who could have been proud of his pedigree, as well as taking pride that he was a disciple of the great Gamaliel before his encounter with Jesus Christ on the Damascus road.

b) Philippians 3:4-6 – though I myself have reasons for such confidence. If someone else thinks they have reasons to put confidence in the flesh, I have more: circumcised on the eighth day, of the people of Israel, of the tribe of Benjamin, a Hebrew of Hebrews; in regard to the law, a Pharisee; as for zeal, persecuting the church; as for righteousness based on the law, faultless. But whatever were gains to me I now consider loss for the sake of Christ.

c) The truth of the matter is that all of us are in need of God’s grace, mercy, love and forgiveness for our sins. The point of Romans chapter 3, is that the hearer would realize that the only way to be accepted in the Father is by His great grace and mercy in the face of Jesus Christ and His death on a cross and His resurrection.

d) All people are under the power of sin. Greek – pas hypo hamartia – all under sin; i.e. to miss the mark, to err, to be without a share in, to wander from the path of righteousness, honor, or go wrong, to wander from God ways, to violate God’s laws, personal sin, or the sin of a collective group of people. The use of the word under implies being ruled over, dominated, or subjugated to. This accurately describes the Fall of humanity from God’s grace in Genesis 3.

e) Just as faith is the great equalizer of all people, so we are all equal in our condition before God as sinners needing His grace. The good news is that after we have been reconciled to God, we are no longer orphan sinners, but children of God being Fathered by Him, a Bride in waiting, disciples who are learning His ways, salt, light, and His New Covenant saints who have been sanctified by the blood of Christ.

Romans 3:10-18

a) Paul uses the Old Covenant Scriptures as a witness to the truth that all people need God’s grace. We could say that as Paul, led by the Holy Spirit, strings these Old Covenant quotes together, he performs a “spiritual MRI” from the top of head to the toes of collective humanity and has found us wanting.

b) Paul quotes Psalm 14:1-3, Psalm 53:1-3, Ecclesiastes 7:20, Psalm 5:9, Psalm 104:3, Psalm 10:7 (Septuagint), Isaiah 59:7-8, and Psalm 36:1.

c) Notice the progression away from God as we follow the movements in the text and metaphors used to point to the intensity by which humanity has moved away from God.

d) No one righteous or understands – A fitting description of humanity that is under the Adam’s inheritance of the Fall.

e) No one seeks God – We must remember that He loved us first and seeks our hearts and we simply respond to Him. If we seek God in the unredeemed condition, we end up with idols. 1 John 4:19 – We love because he first loved us.

f) Worthless – Greek – achreioō – render unserviceable – broken.

g) Having no fear of God is by far the farthest point from His presence. Psalm 111:10 – The fear of the LORD is the beginning of wisdom; all who follow his precepts have good understanding. To him belongs eternal praise. Proverbs 1:7 – The fear of the LORD is the beginning of knowledge, but fools (morally deficient) despise wisdom and instruction.

h) As Paul moves through these quotes we see the corruption of the throat, tongue, mouth, feet, and eyes. This may sound hopeless, but a realization of the human condition before God gives an appreciation and humility for His grace, mercy and love for us. It helps us understand the magnitude of His love for humanity.

Romans 3:19

a) NKJV – Now we know that whatever the law says, it says to those who are under the law, that every mouth may be stopped, and all the world may become guilty before God. – No one escapes accountability to God for the course of their lives. This is a motivation for us to share Jesus with the world around us because eternal destiny depends on us sharing the love of God that saves us from the guilt of sin.

Romans 3:20

a) NKJV – Therefore by the deeds of the law no flesh will be justified in His sight, for by the law is the knowledge of sin. – The purpose of the Law is the revelation of our sin unto salvation. See Galatians 3:24 – So the law was our guardian until Christ came that we might be justified by faith.

Living in Grace and Faith – Romans 3:1-8 – Week 8

Living in Grace and Faith

Romans 3:1-8

Week 8

Rob Covell

Introduction –
In this Session, we will begin Romans chapter 3, and explore verses 1-8. We are moving on from Paul’s indictment of the religious sinner and moving into Paul’s genesis of building the theological thoughts that bring the glorious truth that God justifies sinners by faith, through believing in Jesus’ substitutionary death on a cross for sin and His resurrection from the dead that proves His work of salvation. This theological truth peaks in Romans 10:9-10. Romans 3 begins the lead up that peaks in Romans 10.
Romans 10:9-10 – If you declare with your mouth, “Jesus is Lord,” and believe in your heart that God raised him from the dead, you will be saved. For it is with your heart that you believe and are justified, and it is with your mouth that you profess your faith and are saved.

In Romans 3:1-8, there are 4 movements in the text.

1 – God’s purpose through Israel in saving humanity.

2 – All humanity is accountable to God because humanity has a freewill.

3 – God is justified in His judgments and decisions because He is God.

4 – The grace of God is never an excuse to be unaccountable to God.

Romans 8:1-2

a) The hearers of Paul’s letter to the church at Rome who were Jewish believers may be wondering if there any value in being descended from Israel, because of his indictment of the religious spirit that existed in Judaism at that time. Paul made the case that circumcision, one’s identity as Jewish, and the possession of the Law could not produce salvation. The question begs to be asked; “did old covenant believers obtain eternal salvation before Jesus made atonement on the cross?”. We would answer an emphatic yes, because one would have been practicing the Law and the old covenant sacrifices by faith, with the hope of the Messianic promise given to Adam and Eve, Abraham’s promise, David’s promise, and the prophetic promises of the prophets from God to Israel. Paul was simply making the case that religion alone is no substitute for faith.

b) Paul points out that God gave Israel His salvation narrative through the Word of God; and because the LORD worked salvation through Israel, God’s promise to humanity in Genesis 3:15, to save humanity was fulfilled in Jesus Christ. That is a great gift to humanity that only came through the Hebrew’s relationship with Yahweh.

c) Paul explains this concept in greater detail in Romans 9.

Romans 3:3-4

a) Just because some Jews rejected the Messiahship of Christ does not mean that God failed in His promise to restore humanity back to Himself through them. Acts 15:5 mentions a contingency of Pharisees who became believers, Acts 4:36 tells us that Barnabas was a Levite, and Acts 6:7 tells that a great number of priests became obedient to the faith. It is a common Evangelical misconception that most Jews rejected the message of Messiah. This is simply not true. The Acts narrative alone teaches us otherwise, as well as Early Church history.

b) God is faithful to His Word. Ezekiel 12:25 – But I the LORD will speak what I will, and it shall be fulfilled without delay. For in your days, you rebellious people, I will fulfill whatever I say, declares the Sovereign LORD.

c) Verse 4 teaches us that God is justified in everything He does. We know that all of God’s works are righteous because He is Perfect. 1 John 1:5 – This is the message we have heard from him and declare to you: God is light; in him there is no darkness at all. James 1:7 NKJV – Every good gift and every perfect gift is from above, and comes down from the Father of lights, with whom there is no variation or shadow of turning.

d) We may not understand all of God’s decisions or ways, but when all things are summed up in Christ, God receives all the glory, honor, power and praise, even as He judges those who rejected relationship with Him.

e) Spurgeon – “It is a strange, strong expression; but it is none too strong. If God says one thing, and every man in the world says another, God is true, and all men are false. God speaks the truth, and cannot lie. God cannot change; his word, like himself, is immutable. We are to believe God’s truth if nobody else believes it. The general consensus of opinion is nothing to a Christian. He believes God’s word, and he thinks more of that than of the universal opinion of men.”

f) Paul quotes Psalm 51:4, in Romans 3:4.

Romans 3:5-6

a) Paul brings the counter-argument to the forefront in verse 5, which goes something like this; “If my sin brings about a display of God’s righteousness and God’s will, then how can He judge me for what I have done? Because my sin ultimately serves His purpose and that is a good thing”.

b) Is God unjust in His wrath – The thought that Paul is addressing goes like this; “If God is in control of everything, then humanity is just a victim of fate from God, and we are all pawns and puppets”. Judas would have been an extreme example of this argument. Genesis 3 shows us that love is a choice and God loves freewill lovers.

c) The answer to this is found in 2 theological constructs. 1 – Providence, see Romans 8:28. 2 – Omniscience, See Isaiah 40:28 and Job 21:22 and Psalm 147:4-5.

d) When Paul says, “I am using a human argument”, he is not saying that he is not being inspired by the Holy Spirit in that moment; he is implying that as a fallen man who needs mercy from Christ, he will not challenge God’s position or the decisions of His heart.

e) How could God judge the world? Because He is righteous, good, perfect and true; even in His judgments.

Romans 3:7-8

a) There were some in the Apostolic Era that objected to Paul’s gospel message of justification of sins through the grace of Jesus Christ in the cross and our faith and trust in Jesus’ atonement as the requirement for salvation. The Judaizers were some of those accusers. They accused Paul of preaching a cheap grace message.

b) The others who adopted a cheap grace message were the Gnostics and their libertine teachings that excused the sin of humanity and taught that the flesh was so corrupt that sin in the body was inevitable, so one should just do what feels good in the flesh because Christ will ultimately redeem it without consequence.

c) Scripture teaches us that the sanctification process is a process of learning to live in the Spirit through our New Creation nature as Christ is being formed in us through our lives. See Galatians 5. d) Christian obedience flows from our desire to protect our relationship with God and please Him through our faithful freewill choices.

Living in Grace and Faith – Romans 2:21-28 – Week 7

Living in Grace and Faith

Romans 2:21-29

Week 7

Rob Covell

Introduction – In this Session, we will complete Romans 2, and explore verses 21-29. Romans 2 has been a very theologically heavy section of Scripture as Paul takes on the religious sinner and the religious spirit that manifests in those who believe they are self-justified and self-righteous. Paul is building the case throughout Romans that the only people that are justified before God are those who have faith in the atonement of Jesus Christ. Romans is the deepest theological explanation of the essentials of the Christian faith, the identity of God’s people and the explanation of the Spirit-led life of freedom for the child of God.

To grasp the impact and power of Paul’s closing indictment of the religious sinner, we need to see the context of the common culture in the text. As we move through these verses, we will key in on Paul’s direct references to the Jewish religious landscape that were prevalent in that time.

In Romans 2:21-29, there are 2 main movements in the text.

1 – Acceptance in God does not depend on outward works.

2 – The identity of God’s people are the people of faith who live by the Spirit.

Romans 2:21-23

a) In cultural context of these verses, rabbis of the First Century had exegeted the Law to the point where they believed that they could keep the Law perfectly. The Pharisee movement within Judaism certainly was attempting to live in purity and in fidelity to the Law. Jesus exposed this religious lie that says; “only the outward actions and conduct of the person count as obedience to the Law”. However, we know that God applies the Law to both the thoughts of our hearts and our actions. See Matthew 5:21-37, where Jesus destroys the Pharisees theological positions on Law Keeping. Jesus elevated the Law for the express purpose of exposing our need for a Savior, Jesus Christ. Galatians 3:24 says that the Law is a tutor that leads us to Christ.

b) The religious, self-righteous spirit continued in Church History and still exists today. In approximately AD 1114, Cardinal Cremensis, the Pope’s legate/enforcer who was charged with breaking up the marriages of priests was caught with a woman by another Cardinal. He excused himself by saying that was not a priest.

c) The reference to robbing temples, is a cultural reference to the common practice of merchant Jews profiting from the idolatry of the Roman Empire.

d) Hypocrites typically talk in high religious platitudes that rob them of humility and dependence on God’s grace, mercy and love. When we live in reverence and humility before God, then the judgment we carry towards others evaporates from our souls.

Romans 2:24

a) Paul is reminding the Law Keepers of the First Century that in the history of Israel and Judah, their disobedience to the Mosaic Covenant caused Gentiles to blasphemy the LORD. b) Joel 2:17 – Let the priests, who minister before the LORD, weep between the portico and the altar. Let them say, “Spare your people, LORD. Do not make your inheritance an object of scorn, a byword among the nations. Why should they say among the peoples, ‘Where is their God?”

Romans 2:25-26

a) To an observant Jew, circumcision was the sign of God’s Covenant with Abraham and his descendants. The fact that one was circumcised lead them to believe that they were guaranteed entrance into the Kingdom of God simply based on their national identity. Deuteronomy 10:16 warned against the Israelites against religious pride based on their national identity.

b) The Apostolic Church wrestled with this mindset as well. Acts 15:1- Certain people came down from Judea to Antioch and were teaching the believers: “Unless you are circumcised, according to the custom taught by Moses, you cannot be saved.” The though here is that circumcision guaranteed their identities as children of Abraham, in addition their faith in Jesus’ atoning work on the cross.

c) Paul taught against this mindset in Galatians 2, 5, 6, and Colossians 2.

d) Eternal destiny is determined in the heart of person who believes and trusts that Jesus paid the price for sin and bridges the sin divide between a Holy God and Fallen humanity.

e) Like circumcision, baptism is a sign of our New Covenant relationship with God that lives in on the inside of us. Baptism is the outward confession of a heart that loves God.

Romans 2:28-29

a) In verses 28-29, Paul introduces the idea that the identity of God’s people is those who have found salvation in Jesus Christ; these are New Covenant people, contrasted to Old Covenant people who lived under the Law that was unable to justify any human being before God.

b) Notice the contrast between the circumcision of the flesh, versus the cutting-off of the carnal nature by the Spirit. Paul is building a case that expounds more as we progress through the Epistle to the Romans, that God’s people are not the national Jew, but the children of God who been justified by their like Abraham. Galatians 3:7-9 – Understand, then, that those who have faith are children of Abraham. Scripture foresaw that God would justify the Gentiles by faith, and announced the gospel in advance to Abraham: “All nations will be blessed through you.” So those who rely on faith are blessed along with Abraham, the man of faith.

c) See Galatians 2:23-29. d) We can only receive praise from God through faith. Hebrews 11:6 – And without faith it is impossible to please God, because anyone who comes to him must believe that he exists and that he rewards those who earnestly seek him.

Living in Faith and Grace – Romans 2:12-20 – Week 6

Living in Grace and Faith

Romans 2:12-20

Week 6

Rob Covell

Introduction – In this Session, we will explore Romans 2:2-20. In the last 5 Sessions, we moved through Romans Chapter 1 and looked at God’s indictment of the Roman pagan culture that Paul lived in, for their gross immorality. In Romans 1, we also see the moral slide of cultures and societies that abandon the knowledge of God and suffer in progressive degrees of unrighteousness being expressed in the people. In the context of Romans, Paul’s target was the common Roman culture and pantheon of its idols.

However, in Romans 2, Paul takes on the religious sinner, whose sin is not overt, but hidden in the heart, or sin that is seems of small consequence when compared to others. At the time of Paul’s writing he would have been targeting the observant Jew and moral philosopher. We could say Paul is taking on the religious spirit that condemns others, while excusing itself. See Luke 18:10-14. (Pharisee versus the Tax Collector)

In Romans 2:12-20, we see 4 movements in the text.

1 – All people are accountable for their sins.

2 – The human conscience God’s governor of the soul.

3 – Jesus Christ is the agent of God’s judgment on humanity.

4 – Spiritual pride married to knowing God’s Law does not make us righteous.

Romans 2:12

a) Paul continues to make the case that all people are accountable for their sin. In the context of Paul’s Epistle to the Romans, the religious sinner may have been thinking that because he knew the Law of God, his sin was judged differently than the Gentile sinner of the Roman Empire. It was a common thought in Rabbinic teaching that God would judge the Gentiles with one measure and use another measure when judging the sons and daughters of Israel.

b) It is dangerous to justify our sin because we are Christians. This is the genesis for religious pride that comes before a fall. Additionally, this is an open door to searing our conscience to the conviction of the Holy Spirit. See 1 Timothy 4:1-2.

c) Hebrews 4:13 – Nothing in all creation is hidden from God’s sight. Everything is uncovered and laid bare before the eyes of him to whom we must give account.

Romans 2:13

a) What is in view here in the text is the subject of ultimate accountability to God for the things we have done during our lifetimes. Hearing the Law is of no value, unless one does the Law. We must keep in mind that Paul is building a theological case that one cannot keep the Law, and therefore is dependent on the sacrifice of Jesus Christ for the forgiveness of our sins and the leading of the Holy Spirit who gives us the grace to walk out God’s desires for our lives. All of us have violated God’s Law and all of us have kept God’s Law at times. However, none of has ever lived God’s Law in perfection, except for Jesus Christ, the Living Torah.

Romans 2:14-15

a) It is important to note that Paul points out that the human conscience is from God and is the internal governor that either conforms that we have done right or convicts us that we have done wrong. Just based on this truth, no person is ever not accountable to their actions in the sight of God.

b) Paul points our that the Laws of God are present within individuals, whether they are codified or not.

c) Every human culture in history has a set of ethics and morals that govern the social structures of their societies. These all vary in degrees of righteousness. However, there are basic acceptable and unacceptable behaviors in all people groups. The schools of Greek philosophy in Paul’s time proposed that all people had an unwritten law in them that pointed them to the “right way”.

d) Notice that Paul did not say that Gentiles could fulfill the Law based on following their consciences, but they could do the Law, meaning a general way of doing right, however still imperfect.

Romans 2:16

a) Notice that no one can claim exemption from the judgment of God because they did know His revealed Word. Just the act of violating our inner revelation of right and wrong is enough to be brought to account for our sins.

b) Paul injects the judgment coming through Messiah. This is so fitting, because Jesus was the One who died for sin, who took on sin, endured the punishment for sin, activated the restorative justice of God by delivering humanity from sin, sickness, and torment. Jesus is the One qualified to know the human heart and judge the human heart because of who He is; a God-Man.

c) Hebrews 2:11 – Both the one who makes people holy and those who are made holy are of the same family. So Jesus is not ashamed to call them brothers and sisters. d) Notice that Paul says, “my gospel”. Has the message of Jesus Christ so penetrated our hearts, that it lives in us, and it becomes our life?

Romans 2:17-20

a) Paul addresses the common cultural position of the Jews in the First Century, which is their boast that because they have the Law of God, they are superior to the other people groups in the world around them. This mindset was a major issue in the Early Church. See Acts 11:1-2. See Acts 15. See 2:11-13.

b) Paul is making the case that just because one possesses the Law, that in its self does not make them righteous before a holy God. The only way to approach God is in humility on our part and mercy on His part through Jesus Christ.

c) Jesus’ hardest rebukes were reserved for the self-righteous religious sinners of the Pharisees and Sadducees.

d) As Christians we possess the Word of God in its totality. We have the responsibility to not only know the Word of God, align our lives to the Word of God, and present the love, mercy and grace of God that forgives, heals and restores people back to God. See 2 Corinthians 5:18-19.

Living in Grace and Faith – Romans 2:1-11 – Week 5

Living in Grace and Faith

Romans 2:1-11

Week 5

Rob Covell

Introduction – In this Session, we will begin Romans Chapter 2, and explore verses 1-11. In the last 4 Sessions, we moved through Romans Chapter 1 and looked at God’s indictment of the Roman pagan culture that Paul lived in, for their gross immorality. In Romans 1, we also see the moral slide of cultures and societies that abandon the knowledge of God and suffer in progressive degrees of unrighteousness being expressed in the people. In the context of Romans, Paul’s target was the common Roman culture and pantheon of its idols. Today, the target of Romans 1 would be our hyper-sexualized American culture.

As we explored Romans 1, we looked at the theology of the Judgment of God and learned how God’s wrath was and is revealed in 5 ways.

1 – Judgment of Nations (Old Covenant)

2- Eternal Judgment of the individual (Matt. 18)

3 – Judgment of Reaping and Sowing (Galatians 5)

4 – Judgment of the denial of God on societies (Romans 1)

5 – Judgment of the removal of Grace on the believer (1 Corinthians 5:5)

If Paul had stopped defining sin in Romans 1, moral people might feel really good about themselves and judge others who lived in open immorality and consider themselves better people. However, in Romans 2, Paul takes on the religious sinner, whose sin is not overt, but hidden in the heart, or sin that is seems of small consequence when compared to others. At the time of Paul’s writing he would have been targeting the observant Jew and moral philosopher. We could say Paul is taking on the religious spirit that condemns others, while excusing itself. See Luke 18:10-14. (Pharisee versus the Tax Collector)

In Romans 2:1-11, we see the following movements in the text.

1 – The religious sinner is as guilty as the overt sinner.

2 – God’s kindness is revealed in His patience dealing with all people considering their sin.

3 – We are all accountable to the way we live before God.

4 – Faith is the great equalizer of all people.

Romans 2:1

a) Jesus spoke to these same heart conditions in the religious sinner in Matthew 7:1-5. See Matthew 7:1-5. Our personal freedom in our hearts is dependent on our ability to live free from offense, free from letting the decisions and actions of others affect our hearts, and free from judging others regarding the conditions of their hearts. Notice that Jesus says that we are equipped to help others heal from sin, when we ourselves have healed.

b) The most outrageous form of hypocrisy is to label other people sinners and then
do similar things because it is blind to God’s mercy.

Romans 2:2-4

a) When God judges’ people, He does so in perfect justice and consequence. Considering that God is Light and in Him there is no darkness, or shadow of turning, that He is love, and He is holy, it is impossible for Him to pervert justice.

b) Because we are affected by the Fall, and have inherited Adam’s sin nature, we are incapable of judging people in equity and perfect justice. We are all under sin are dependent on God’s mercy in Jesus Christ. See Romans 6:23.

c) God shows all people mercy in 3 ways. 1 – Rich Kindness – Greek – ploutos autos chrēstotēs – rich benevolence and kindness. 2 – Forbearance – Greek – anochē – toleration, forbearance. 3 – Patience – Greek – makrothymia – patience, endurance, constancy, steadfastness, perseverance, forbearance, longsuffering, slowness in avenging wrongs.

d) All these Fatherly attributes of God are for the express purpose of bringing us to repentance. Not because we fear the eternal consequence of sin, which is staggering and horrible, but that we recognize His goodness and submit to Him through the revelation of His goodness.

Romans 2:5

a) The failure to recognize God’s goodness and turn our hearts to Him, accumulates the wraith of God towards us, and becomes manifest at the end of our lives, or at Christ’s return. Notice that the New Covenant understanding of God’s wrath is that which sees the active wrath of God on humanity stayed until the end of the New Covenant Age. See 1 Thessalonians 4:13-18 & 1 Thessalonians 5:4-11.

Romans 2:6-9

a) Paul quotes Psalms 62:12 and Proverbs 24:12. Our daily decisions have eternal consequences. In Luke 12, Jesus gave various commands and parables that encourage us in this truth. See Luke 12:42-46.

Romans 2:10-11

a) Our perseverance of faith will be richly rewarded when we are received into eternal life. The power of our decisions is almost unimaginable in scale when we look at them in the light of the eternal reward for being faithful to God throughout our lives. This is not a works-based approach to God, but a life long relationship with God that is expressed through us that mirror what He does, and desires to do through us.

b) The favor of God is not dependent on who we are, but on whose we are and our response to His rich kindness, forbearance, and patience. Faith is the great equalizer. Just as the Lord interacted with Moses, Abraham, Paul, Peter, Deborah, or Miriam, he will relate to us in the same way as we live in faith, express faith and are faithful sons and daughters to Him.

Living in Grace and Faith – Romans 1:21-32 – Week 4

Living in Grace and Faith

Romans 1:21-32

Week 4

Rob Covell

Introduction – In this Session, we will explore Romans Chapter 1, verses 21-32. I want to spend some time on the introduction in this Session, because it is important that we understand the macro-view of Romans chapters 1-2 in totality. The narrative that Paul puts forth in these 2 chapters promotes the thought that all people are deficient before God, we all sin, we are all hypocritical in our attitudes and mindsets, and we all need redemption from the curse of the Fall, the error of sin and healing in our lives. Paul is building the case that Gentiles and Jews alike cannot trust in our human works of righteousness to cover our sins or redeem ourselves, but that all people will find our redemption and forgiveness for sins in Christ. Through Romans, Paul makes the case from the Law and the Prophets that Jesus is the Promised Messiah and that he fulfilled the righteousness of the Law by living a perfect life in obedience to the Father, therefore becoming the perfect sacrifice for the sins of humanity. Jesus is Eden restored, as He is the Second Adam.

Before we exegete the text in this Session, we need to frame Paul’s condemnation of the Gentile world in the context of the culture he writing to and writing in. 1 – Paul was writing to the Church in Rome, and to a Church he had not met. Rome being the capitol of the Roman Empire was the seat of Emperor worship, the Roman Pantheon of Gods, as well as the intersection point for the mystery cults that were scattered across the empire. 2 – Paul describes the abandonment of God in people groups in progressive revelations of God’s wrath. The farther people move away from the knowledge of God, judgment is manifested by His withdrawal from them and becomes apparent by the loss of their moral compass. Paul’s Roman Empire was much more morally debased than anything our culture has ever seen. He is describing what he is seeing through the revelation of the Holy Spirit as he writes the Church at Rome.

In Romans 1:21-32, we see the following movements in the text. 1 – The abandonment of the knowledge of God is a descending scale of lawlessness manifested in humanity. 2 – The abandonment of God in cultures and societies cause God to honor these decisions and withdrawal from them and is a manifestation of judgment. 3 – The inner moral compass of humanity stands as an eternal witness that unrighteousness and lawlessness deserve a consequence.

Conversely, in light of these negative consequences of judgment and the loss of goodness in cultures and societies, the Church stands as the change agent of nations. Not only do we release restoration and reconciliation between God and people by proclaiming the gospel, we occupy these gains by active discipleship, and transform culture by living our destinies out in God.

We will have another Q&A at the end of our Session.
Romans 1:21

a) Humanity possesses an internal moral compass because we are all made in the image of God. The conscience is the inner witness of our divine origin as those created by God in His image.

b) Paul seems to be peering deep into the Biblical account of the table of nations in Genesis 10 as the backdrop for these verses, when all nations knew God as they sprung out of Noah. See Genesis 9:1-7.

c) Societies degrade in the following ways. 1 – Deny God His rightful place as Creator and Sovereign. 2 – Not giving thanks to God for their lives and His goodness towards humanity.

d) The first things people groups lose when they abandon the knowledge of God is the loss of wise rational thought and the loss of revelation light. Greek – asynetos – without understanding, unintelligent, by implication morally depraved. Proverbs 1:7 – The fear of the LORD is the beginning of knowledge, but fools despise wisdom and instruction.

Romans 1:22-23

a) Since the knowledge of God, i.e. the knowledge of His nature and character, is wisdom and truth, any mental reasoning devoid of the knowledge of God is human wisdom that that is subjective and not authoritative because it is not subject something transcendent from humanity, God.

b) When humanity is subject to God or acknowledges His Person, we make lesser gods in the images of ourselves or the created order. Notice the Greek word is eikōn – an image, figure, likeness. Humanity is redisposed to believe in something transcendent to ourselves, so when we lose the knowledge of God, we make a god that reflects us, instead of communing with God in relational ways release His wisdom into our lives.

c) Notice the progressive slide of man-made religion. 1 – Idols made in the image of that which is made in the image of God. 2 – Idols that are made in the image of created things that are devoid of the image of God.

d) Many Christians are in danger of creating an image of Jesus that looks like us, acts like us, and in that image of Jesus, we are not accountable to Him as Lord.

e) See Isaiah 40:13-20.

Romans 1:24-25

a) In verse 24, we see the wrath of God being revealed by His withdrawal from cultures that reject Him. When God is present in a people, goodness is present.

b) The first manifestation of a godless culture is the loss of self-control regarding sexual immorality. 1 Corinthians 6:18 – Flee from sexual immorality. Every other sin a person commits is outside the body, but the sexually immoral person sins against his own body. Greek – atimazō – to dishonor, insult, treat with contempt.

c) Christian sexual purity is a boundary that proves God’s care for people. 1 – We are protected from emotional soul and spirit damage because we are following original design for man and woman. 2 – We are protected from disease. 3 – By
maintaining purity we are demonstrating the power of Covenant. 4 – We are prophesying the Christian message of Covenant Marriage being the witness to the world around us for the type of relationship that Jesus Christ enjoys with His Church. See Ephesians 5:21-33.

d) Part of the Christian worldview is lie versus truth.

Romans 1:26-27

a) Before we proceed further, I want us to keep in mind 2 things. 1 – We are all deficient regarding righteousness and holiness. Paul is making the case for a need for the Savior. 2 – After Paul builds a case against the Gentile world, he builds a case against the religious Jews. Consider that we are in the section that exposes the Gentile sinner and the religious sinner will be exposed in Romans 2. Romans 2:1 – You, therefore, have no excuse, you who pass judgment on someone else, for at whatever point you judge another, you are condemning yourself, because you who pass judgment do the same things. Matthew 7:1-2 – Do not judge, or you too will be judged. For in the same way you judge others, you will be judged, and with the measure you use, it will be measured to you.

b) Widespread acceptance of homosexuality in a culture is the continuation of God’s judgment on a society. Notice that God honors the decisions of people. Their decisions either bring glory to Him or the loss of the knowledge of Him. Sin is sin, and all sin leads to separation from God.

c) The Christian perception of homosexuality is that it is sin, just like the other sexual sins that are manifested in humanity. The penalties are the same. Colossians 3:5 – Put to death, therefore, whatever belongs to your earthly nature: sexual immorality, impurity, lust, evil desires and greed, which is idolatry.

Romans 1:28-32

a) The accumulation of the expression of sin in a culture is a judgment of God by withdrawing from these cultures, honoring their collective choices as they reap what they have sown by their choices.

b) No understanding, no fidelity, no love, no mercy – Societies that do not maintain the knowledge of God are hard-hearted, dangerous and damaging to people.

c) The fullest manifestation of godlessness in a society and culture is the approval of all things contrary to God’s nature and character.

Living in Grace and Faith – Romans 1:14-20 – Week 3

Living in Grace and Faith

Romans 1:14-20

Week 3

Rob Covell

Introduction – In this Session, we will explore Romans Chapter 1, verses 14-20 and look at some of the highest and complex theological thoughts regarding humanity’s relationship with God. We will slow down and take our time exploring these verses because of the theological complexity of the subjects we will encounter in this Session. After, we will have a Q&A so that everyone’s questions are satisfied.

In verses 14-20, we see the following movements in the text.

1 – All Christians are obligated to love and proclaim the gospel to all people groups.

2 – All Christians should possess a state a readiness to serve God and manifest His Person to others.

3 – The gospel possesses inherent power to save.

4 – The righteousness of God is imparted to us and lives in us by faith.

5 – The wrath of God is revealed in metered ways in the New Covenant Age and will be revealed in fullness at the end of the New Covenant Age.

Romans 1:14-15

a) As Paul continues his introduction to the Church at Rome, he communicates his heart for all people. Just as Jesus Christ died for all the sons of Adam and daughters of Eve, those who carry His message are obligated to all people groups.

b) Most English Translations read “under obligation to Greeks and barbarians”. For us to understand this verse, we must consider the context of the culture. When Paul refers to Greeks, he is referring to the education, culture and language of the people of the civilized Roman Empire and not the Greek nationality per se.

c) The reference to barbarians is in the context of people who were not Hellenized in their culture and language. This would be the tribal of people of Britain, Germans, northern Europeans, and east Asians.

d) The reference to the wise and foolish are to be taken in the clear cultural context that people who were Hellenized were educated in philosophy, science, technology, art, culture, and common language. This would have included the learned people like Jews, Romans, Egyptians, Persians, and Hellenized Greeks. The reference to the foolish would be a reference to the unlearned, i.e. the tribal peoples who did not possess the common technology of the great ancient empires.

e) Paul was eager to preach to them because Rome was the center of the First Century world where all people groups intersected. His opportunity to reach all kinds of people was an unprecedented opportunity in his ministry up to that date. f) Notice that the NKJV reads “I am ready” – Paul was ready to serve God, Paul was ready to suffer, Paul was ready to manifest the power of God, Paul was ready to die for Christ.

Romans 1:16

a) Notice that Paul possesses boldness in his convictions of what he believes to be true about Messiah.

b) The gospel has inherent power, in the message itself. If we consider the scale and scope of the atonement of Jesus Christ, we can see that the blood of Christ spans billions of souls and millennia, and every need that any man or woman may have.

c) Salvation understood in the context of the First Century, was understood in the sense that mankind was sick and needed an intervention. Greek philosopher, Epictetus called his lecture room “the hospital for the sick soul.” Epicurus called his teaching “the medicine of salvation.” Seneca said that because men were so conscious of “their weakness and their inefficiency in necessary things” that all men were looking “towards salvation.” Epictetus said that men were looking for a peace “not of Caesar’s proclamation, but of God’s.” Presently, we should consider asking ourselves, “what are saved from?” (Barclay & Guzik).

d) The power of the gospel is released when people proclaim it, and the power released corresponds to content of the message.

e) The power of the gospel is inherent in its content and activated when people believe.

f) First to the Jew then the Gentile – this was Paul’s ministry strategy. Preach to Jews who possessed the knowledge of God, understood the Covenants and the promises of God in waiting for the Messiah. They would have easily understood Paul’s preaching that Jesus Christ was Messiah. Once Paul won a remnant for Christ, he would then shift to focus on others in that city. He would have naturally had helpers in the Jews who received Christ who could help disciple the Gentiles who received Jesus as Lord and Savior.

Romans 1:17

a) The gospel reveals the righteousness of God, should be understood in the sense that God imputed His righteousness to the sinner who receives it by faith. Greek – dikaiosynē – in a broad sense: state of him who is as he ought to be, righteousness, the condition acceptable to God.

b) The message of the gospel not only gives the hearer a revelation of their sin, but also releases a revelation of God’s great love for humanity. Without the atonement of Jesus Christ on the cross, and the faith of believers being joined to that sacrifice, the righteousness that God possess is totally unattainable. It is the most freeing thing to know that God’s righteousness has been given to all who believe.

c) First to last, or faith to faith – This shows us that the righteousness of God lives from faith and only faith from the time we know Christ throughout our whole journey with Him. Roland Kenneth Harrison – “Perhaps what it conveys is the necessity of issuing a reminder to the believer that justifying faith is only the beginning of the Christians life. The same attitude must govern him in his continuing experience as a child of God.”

d) See Galatians 3:1-3 & 5 – You foolish Galatians! Who has bewitched you? Before your very eyes Jesus Christ was clearly portrayed as crucified. I would like to
learn just one thing from you: Did you receive the Spirit by the works of the law, or by believing what you heard? So again I ask, does God give you his Spirit and work miracles among you by the works of the law, or by your believing what you heard?

Romans 1:18-20

a) The reason humanity needs to be covered and imputed with the righteousness of God, is the wrath of God. The gospel not only communicates God’s great love in pursuing humanity in relationship, but also acknowledges that God will not violate His nature and character regarding His perfection, purity, holiness and righteousness. It is true that God’s demand for righteousness is met in the atonement of Christ and that God is relating to the world through a grace invitation to be in relationship with Him in the New Covenant; however, the wrath of God will be revealed at the end of the New Covenant Age.

b) The objects of the wrath of God are those who have abandoned the knowledge of God. These verses introduce us to what theologians call Common Faith. This is not saving faith, but a common belief that God exists. When nation states stray from this elementary belief that God exists, they are given over to the progressive degeneration of morals, injustice and tyranny. This downward spiral of degeneration is outlined in detail in Romans 1:18-32. The failure of nation states and people groups to recognize the Person of God, invites the judgment of God in the form of immorality, the loss of wisdom, idolatry, depravity, loss of social graces and eventually death.

c) Considering that we are exploring the theology of the wrath of God (orge) we would say that wrath is revealed in God’s judgment. There 5 judgments of God that reveal God’s wrath. 1 – Judgment of Nations (Old Covenant), 2 – Eternal Judgment of the individual (Matt. 18), 3 – Judgment of Reaping and Sowing (Galatians 5), 4 – Judgment of the denial of God (Romans 1), 5 – Judgment of the removal of Grace on the believer (1 Corinthians 5:5).

d) Romans 1:20 makes it clear that all humanity is without excuse because the revelation of God is clearly seen in His creation. God is revealed in all things created, immaterial and living. Humanity itself manifests God’s nature and character in our moral sensibilities, our creativity, our love of beauty, and the need for justice that is inherent in all people groups.
Q&A –